Category Archives: Classification Essay


The Poetry of Everyday Song (part 3)

“Arcades” resembles the combination of song, music, costume drama, dance and verse generally performed before an aristocratic sponsor. Its length (109 lines in total) suggests that it was written and performed as the prelude to a more extensive series of events (Patterson 89). The prose preface calls it “Part of an entertainment presented to the Countess Dowager of Derby at Harefield…”. Alice, the Countess Dowager was nominal head of the family who would be Milton’s principal patrons during the time when the poem was written (Patterson 90).

“Arcades” is an address of about sixty lines, done in heroic couplets, by the so-called “Genius of the Wood”, a version of whom would reappear in Comus as the “Attendant Spirit” (Patterson 92). This is topped and tailed by a short sequence of Songs performed by younger members of the Countess’s family. The address is little more than a celebration of the presence and grand status of the Countess:

To the great mistress of yon princely shrine

Whom with low reverence I adore as mine (Milton 36-7)

The phrase “yon princely shrine” signifies the way in which “Arcades” continually crosses the border between actuality and a part-classical, part-Christian spirit world. With “yon” audiences are aware of the material presence of Harefield House, while “shrine” praises the house’s mistress, the noble Dowager, to a higher, mythical status – her young relatives, the singers, are referred to as nymphs (Patterson 90). He introduces the “celestial sirens” (63) and blends this image with his by now familiar notion of

… the heavenly tune, which none can hear

Of human mould with gross unpurged ear (Milton 72-3)

The most intriguing section of “Arcades” is the conclusion of the Genius’s address (74-84), in which Milton finds himself having to reconcile the notion of music which is beyond human comprehension with the newly elevated, almost otherworldly, status of the Dowager (Patterson 93). To have caused her to hear it would have been both anti-religious and insane, and Milton provides a skillfully evasive compromise: “Such music” would be worthy of “her immortal praise” if only my inferior hand or voice could hit/Inimitable sounds” (75-8). The “heavenly tone” would indeed be a fitting tribute to her status, but she is attended by lowly human beings who cannot produce it.

The Poetry of Everyday Song (part 2)

The twenty-line passage following the reflection on King’s departure (64-84) is a disquisition on the function, practice and status of poetry. Fame (70) would be the spur to poetic distinction. Those who do not wish to “meditate the thankless Muse” (66), that is, write serious poetry, can “sport with Amaryllis” (68).

Amaryllis was the young woman praised by “Virgil’s poet-swain Tityrus and for contemporary readers the reference would have evoked the ongoing Metaphysical tradition of amatory verse which, Milton implies, is a diversion” (Danielson 45). Lines 85-102 constitute a section that is both cohesive and transitional. In the former respect it centralizes and emphasizes a theme which features throughout the poem, water. Here the water, in which Lycidas drowned, the sea, is contrasted with the constantly mobile rivers, specifically the stream of “Arethuse” (85) and the “Mincius” (86), Virgil’s native river (Danielson 54-55).

It is the “Camus”, which flows past the ancient colleges of Cambridge, and it opens the passage (103-31) which is the most debated and problematical of the entire poem (Honigman 67). Cambridge has already been introduced as the intellectual home of King and Milton and it is generally accepted that Milton takes the reader there a second time in order to address a particular religious-political agenda. Suddenly we are introduced to “the pilot of the Galilean lake” (109) who bears “Two massy keys … of metal twain”. The pilot is assumed to be St. Peter, to whom Christ gave the symbolic keys of the true Church (Honigman 69-70). This image is much debated, and the most widely accepted interpretation comes from John Ruskin. Ruskin commented that a “Bishop” means “a person who sees” (Qtd in Patterson 78). A “Pastor means a person who feeds” and went on to interpret Milton’s “Blind mouths” as referring to the higher clergy of the Laudian church, who deserved neither the title of bishop, since they had blinded themselves to Christian truth, nor the term pastor since they were greedy and corrupt (Qtd in Patterson 79).

The next 12 lines (119-31) avoid specific reference either to religion or to individual practitioners of it – Christopher Hill, a well-known critic, points out that “Critics who complain of Milton’s obscurity here forget the censorship” (51). All interpreters of the poem agree that the section is a condemnation of the Laudian, Anglican Church. Pastors here are not the shepherd-priests who would care for their flock, but corrupt “hedonists more concerned with the ‘lean and flashy songs’ of high ceremony” (Hill 52).

The remainder of the poem returns us to pastoral figures and images, the most notable being that of Lycidas, “Sunk though he be beneath the watery floor,” (16) transmuted to another realm of existence, “mounted high”, and united with “the dear might of him (Christ) that walked the waves” (173). This enables Milton to integrate the contrasting images of sea and freshwater which inform the poem. Lycidas is now with “other groves and other streams” (174) which “With nectar pure his oozy locks he laves” (174). Lycidas can in these wash from his hair the oozy, salty memory of his drowning at sea. Milton finishes his celebration-remembrance of King with Lycidas as “the genius of the shore” (187),


As opposed to “Lycidas”, which was written to praise King Edward, Milton’s attachment to the family is celebrated in his poem “Arcades”. In this work, the Duchess is presented as the matriarch of a rural paradise in which the arts flourish (Danielson 89-93). In June 1631 the Earl of Bridgewater, the Countess’s son-in-law, was appointed Lord Lieutenant of Wales, and Lawes and Milton decided to collaborate in the writing of a masque (a dramatic entertainment involving verse, music, dancing and scenic effect) to celebrate this (Danielson 89-93). Lawes wrote the music for the song parts, and the words, sung and spoken, were Milton’s (Danielson 89-93)

The Poetry of Everyday Song (part 1)

The Poetry of John Milton Analysis

This paper, by referring to John Milton’s poems “Lycidas” and “Arcades”, examines the relationship between these works and occasions for which they were written; as well as explores the extent to which the author directly addresses the original purpose of these poems.

 “Lycidas” was Milton’s contribution to the volume of memorial works written on the occasion of King Edward’s death. King and Milton were almost the same age and would have known each other in Cambridge, but there is no evidence to suggest that they were close friends. The title and name of Lycidas carry a number of literary reflections; he is a piper in the world of Theocritus, and a shepherd in Virgil’s Eclogues (Patterson 65). These roles are customarily associated with those of poet and priest and Milton presents Lycidas-King as both.

“Lycidas” is brief, 193 lines in total, and could be called to be the most complex short poem in English. It is excellent in its misuse of the sole purpose of why it was produced in the first place. Even though the King is supposed to be the subject of the poem, Milton uses it to illustrate his own views on religion and world in general.

The opening is traditional, yet puzzling:

Yet once more, O ye laurels, and once more,

Ye myrtles brown, with ivy never sere,

I come to pluck your berries harsh and crude,

And with forced fingers rude,

Shatter your leaves before the mellowing year.

(Milton 1-5)

There is nothing unusual about this routine writing strategy but what causes one to suspect that something else is about to occur is the phrasing of “with forced fingers rude/Shatter your leaves…” (Patterson 67). Next, Lycidas is celebrated as shepherd and poet and the passage which has been looked at as both biographical and controversial is the verse paragraph of lines 25-6, in which Milton presents himself and Lycidas-King together as shepherd-poets in what is assumed by editors to be the gardens and meadows surrounding Cambridge colleges.

Milton appears to be as much promoting his own extraordinary talents as he is memorializing King’s, and a little later (37-8) he reminds us that “now thou art gone/Now thou art gone, and never must return!” He follows this (50-63) with a strange passage which deals specifically with King’s death, because he states that King’s poetic and intellectual promise were of no practical benefit at his untimely death (Patterson 68).

Where were ye nymphs when the remorseless deep

Closed o’er the head of your loved Lycidas?  (Milton lines 50-51)

Print ad

The Print ad contains the three different newspaper cuttings for three different periods. The aim of the print ad is to smoke-free society targeted to the Pennsylvania. It is identified In Pennsylvania, smoke-free laws protect health without harming the business.  It is witnessed by the print ads mentioned as follows:

The first ad indicates that “Restaurants, bars gain business under smoke ban”.  It was published in Boston Globe on April 4, 2005 which indicated that the smoke ban resulted bars on gain on the business. It belongs to initial level.  After sometime, there was another advertisement i.e. “Revenues up from smoke-free bars, restaurants” which was published on September 1, 2005 in the Associated Press. It was an indication that slowly smoke-free is being encouraged by the society.  In the last advertisement it is shown that “Cig Ban No Bar Burden” published on July 25, 2006 in New York Post. It is clear cut cigarette ban will not effect on the business and it is not burden to the business.

The print ad definitely tries to change the attitude of smokers thereby leaving habit of smoking. The first ad indicates that there is will be loss on the business when ban is on smoke. But after sometime i.e. just after 5 months it was noticed that revenues were increased though ban on smoking particularly at smoke-free bars and restaurants.  It is an indication that nonsmokers are much attractive with nonsmoking areas. The final ad is that there will not be any burden when ban on cigarettes which will be clear proof that much of the people interested with non smoking.

The laws aimed to protect the health of the human beings and workers so that all workplaces will be environmentally free. There will be adverse impact for every issue. The studies indicate that such smoke-free laws do not have adverse impact on the society.  Due to the smoking, cancer, heart disease and other serious illnesses badly affect the body.  The smokeless environment is only the approach for better protection by non smokers.

My Career


  The destiny of a person is very important and it all depends on choices that are made early in life and not later. Among the important things in life is a career path of an individual right from grade one upwards to grade twelve. This paper analyzes how a career should be selected and what important things or issues to consider when choosing a career.

My Career

  It takes some effort to get to the right track in conjunction with careers as there are many challenges that are associated with choosing these careers, however it is not the same for many young people as (Allen…103) says that, “A person can have an overwhelming number of things and still function clearly and positively”. Young women and men sometimes face problems in choosing careers for the reason that there are role models that they emulate and some of them and in fact many of them are under pressure from parents to do what they want and even to be what they are, for instance, if parents are doctors or lawyers or engineers they could want their sons and daughters to take this career course regardless of their qualifications and ambitions. But this is a wrong way of doing things as (Howse, Hugh & Marshall…167) notes clearly that, “it is unwise to encourage a child to be a quitter; on the other hand serious damage can be done in forcing children in situations where they are desperately unhappy”. For my case parents have been very supportive to this end.

  Since childhood the dream career is to become an engineer and the engineering field is too wide from material engineering to environmental engineering. For this case Civil Engineering is the career in heart and many colleges and universities in the world offer Civil Engineering. There are so many points that are taken into consideration and they vary from one institution to the other i.e. admission requirements, tuition, accommodation, students’ co-curricular activities and many others as (Maxwell…32) notes that, “there is great significance on less considered questions of how, when and where when plans are laid to achieve an objective”. The best colleges and universities are technical or technological and science oriented ones for example Minnesota State University and Michigan State University. However, for my choice it is Minnesota state university which has slightly lower tuition fees, a flexible work-study program and ranked among the top notch universities in the United States of America and the world. With its good name and exemplary performance many employers book students in advance to net them early to work for them. This is the unique reason as to why I have chosen this university. The undergraduates work as interns in various field concerned with Civil Engineering while they are studying and some have had arrangements to work there during holidays like summer holidays for wages. With all the above benefits, the admission requirements are very stringent which need higher grades from high school and college to obtain an admission. Research facilities in the institution are state-of-the art.

  Nevertheless, anything good comes with its costs. Many other universities and colleges are costly when it comes to engineering courses but Minnesota University if a little lower which is averagely $31,000 plus all other expenses apart from personal expenses. This may not be a burden to many people as there is a stable study-work programme.  The arrangement of the university and potential employers to attach the students of all fields more especially Civil Engineering has admirably enhanced work experience of students. The slightly lower fees ha enabled many a student to complete their studies in time and smoothly without interruption. The combination of these two points i.e. lower fees and industrial attachment have assured many students that they may not miss opportunities I among them during this economic crisis all over the world.

  Students’ welfare right away from relating with others that is to say, communication to assistance from the department of Civil Engineering has reduced the stress that is associated with this field of my liking as (Stewart…78) “Listening skill itself is handy in not only solving conflicts but improves and natures interpersonal contact”. The units covered in this faculty are transferable to hundreds of colleges within and without the country and this is an important point to consider in case of internship abroad. 


  So often when there is a good start, always the end is very beneficial and satisfactory. Personally I am happy and on the way to success whereby it will be a crown of contentment to my parents, friends, community and a country as a whole. It will be a dream-come true. The best focus when choosing a career is based on marketability of the field of study during hard and soft times. My success which is around the corner will be an encouragement and a light to other many young people from my locality and a country as a whole.

Major essay (part 3)

Our goal is to have the outcome from the investigation match the empirical outcome that is considered to really exist by the scholars. The comparison is between what the investigation produces using the significance rules and the outcome considered to be real or “true.” There are four possible outcomes of an experiment or survey, regardless of the relation assessed. Of the four outcomes, two are consistent and two involve errors. No errors have been committed if the investigation finds an effect (rejects the null hypothesis) and there is in fact a relation. Similarly, no error has been made if the investigation concludes there is no relation (fails to reject the null hypothesis) and in fact no relation exists. The other two outcomes are considered errors because the outcome of the investigation is inconsistent with what really exists (Allen 1998).


As social scientists, many scholars wish to offer conclusions that address group tendencies. If the question is “Do men or women initiate relationships?” a meta-analysis on this topic would not assert that all men or all women initiate expressions of interest. The conclusion is simply that one of the two groups is first to begin the conversation. Predictions about individuals are not made, because the level of analysis is the group. This observation often leads to the assertion that the social sciences are “soft” or unable to offer robust generalizations. Hedges (1987) explored this assertion by variability found in the natural sciences (the “hard” sciences) and the social sciences. His meta-analysis found that there is actually slightly less variability in investigation outcomes in the social sciences. Variability, then, it not something unique to the social sciences, but rather is something that occurs in all sciences investigating group-level outcomes. The difference is that the hard sciences have, for many years, been using some form of data aggregation to compare and contrast the variability in findings (e.g., smokers vs. nonsmokers, drug trial vs. placebo, bombarding one element with electrons vs. bombarding a different element).

Once the results of interpersonal communication research are tested for error, scholars can begin to treat the findings as a much closer approximation to truth. Consider the example of the interpersonal consequences of self-disclosure. Allen (1998) draws on earlier meta-analyses, summarizes key theoretical issues (sex differences, self-disclosure and liking, and reciprocity), and concludes that self-disclosure is indeed a foundational issue in relational development and management. When interpersonal communication research findings can be demonstrated as consistent across a large set of investigations, the confidence in the findings grows, as does the predictability of generating various outcomes.

Major essay (part 1)

Introduction: literature review

Research on interpersonal communication can and should contribute to the development of scientific findings. Yet, some scientific truths are created by imperfect humans using methods based on probabilistic inferences and puzzled with all sorts of potential for error. The problem of relying on interpersonal communication research, without some method of assessing errors, is that the results may not only produce inconsistent findings, but a chaotic theoretical approach to future research.

Allen (1997) suggested that many narrative or box-score reviews that try to make sense of interpersonal communication research could end up simply perpetuating errors and relying on chance. Additionally, the scholar suggested that attempts to explain inconsistencies in the interpersonal communication literature become more confused, especially when the number of studies becomes larger and larger. Allen (1998) explains that this happens because errors cannot be accounted for on the basis of methodological assumptions or some other type of examination of the investigations. Meta-analysis handles the issues of assessing the impact and the contribution to inter-study variability in outcome on the basis of random factors relating to sampling error.

Other interpersonal communication scholars such as Preiss and Allen (1995) argue that striving to formulate theories must also sift through all sorts of information riddled with various types of errors. They argue that a sophisticated examination, comparison, or classification does not provide a good basis for analysis without a statistical method for elimination of error such as meta-analysis. A telling example of the quandaries faced by these and other scholars summarizing large domains of complex research may be found in the similarity and attraction literature. Sixty years of accumulated literature resulted in competing theoretical camps and disagreements over germane processes and methodological approaches.

Dependent and independent variables

There are many approaches and possibilities for employing a meta-analytic review (Preiss & Allen, 1995). Occasionally, the results of a series of meta-analysis call into question an effort that is presumed to exist. For example, many scholars assumed that widespread differences in interpersonal communication were based on biological gender. That conclusion was called into question in communication by Canary and Hause (1993) and in the social sciences in general by Hyde and Plant (1995). The overall results led Allen (1998) to call for reconsidering both measurement and theoretical approaches. The examples of independent variables on interpersonal communication in his studies are self-esteem, power in language use, self-disclosure, communication process discussions, and interpersonal conflict.