Category Archives: Communication and Media Essays

Communication and Media

United 93 (part 2)

The hijackers of the flight united 93 did not prevent the pessengers from making calls. When the passanger came to know abput the attacks on the World Trade Centre and the Pentagone, the understand what actually was going on. They realised that if they will do nothing than they will also die. So they made last calls to their frainds and family and told them about their intensions. They did planning that how they can get rid of them. They use the waeopons which were available in the flight which includes the cutlery, wine bottles, a fire extinguisher etc.When they came to know that one of the pessenger knew how to fly they used their weapons for retaking the control of plane (Peale, 2003). On the other hand, the remaining pessengers were trying to know about the bomb that whether it is realt or fake. When they were sure about the fakeness of the bomb they attack on Al-Haznawi who was assembling with the bomb. Then the pessenger killed him with a fire extinguisher. In the meanwhile, the situation in the cockpit was becoming more complicated as the pessengers and hijackers were still fighting. In one of the attack by the hijackers on the pessengers, the pessengers lose their balance and the pessenger who was flying the plane lose the control and  the plane goes into an angled nosedive towards the ground.

This shows the courageous acts made it impossible for the hijackers to hit on their targets. Although they all die but they were succeed in their mission. This shows that it was just because of the pessengers of the flight United 93, which kept the hijakers away from their target and save the other thousands of people which otherwise would die if the flight United 93 attacked on it target. This film has influenced different issues. One of the major was the  limited resources and restricted procedures of the Air force. It has been said that if the Air force had a confidence about themselves and their strategies than they would be able to save the lives of thaousands of people in the flight and the workers of the World Trade Centre (Pauling, 1988). It empasizes that the air force and military must correct their shorcomings and improve responses to terrorism. If the actions were not taken by the pessengers than the results would be different and more disastrous. Their extreme measures of overpowering the hijackers shows how much they were confident about themselves which helped them a lot in fighting with the hijackers. Including this, this film influenced many other people as it seems that everyone has lost his loved one who were in flight United 93. Many people thinks that they are alive just because of that 37 passengers who were flying in flight United 93 because if they had not fight with the hijackers than it might happened that they were the targets of the hijackers.

United 93 (part 1)

A movie based on true events of September 11, 2001 showcases the hijacking of one of four airplanes which was not able to hit its target. The inspirational movie states the courageous acts of the passengers when they knew that this was a suicidal mission and the end can be lot more disastrous if they could not take extreme measures in the current time of event. The movie is influential in its whole sense of filming as the real events were perceived and then implemented in a movie.

The film opens early on the morning of September 11, 2001, when the hijackers were busy in their work and them they left for Newark International Airport. At the airport passengers board United Airlines Flight 93 along with the hijackers. This flight delayed due to the traffic but the other three flights which were later hijacked take off. In the beginning, first the American Airline Flight 11 has crashes the North Tower of the World Trade Centre. The air trafiic controllers who were monitoring the all the current flights were unaware of that attack. They just knew that American Flight 11 has taken a southern turn towards New York City.  They tried to make sense of it that what happens to that flight and what make it to turn New York City. During this CNN internationaly telecast the smoke of World Trade Centre which than makes it clear and open to them that they are dealing with Hijacking. Soon they realized that the other flight is also hijached which is United Airline Flight 175. The Air traffic controllers alert the U.S Air Force but they were in confusion whether to shoot all the hijacked flights or not. Soon they saw that another flight 175 crashed into the South Tower of the World Trade Centre. This created a great influence on the people, air traffic controllers and air force. The air traffic controllers were unable to control the situtaion as the hijackers were attacking one after the other. On the other hand the air force got the authority to take actions against the hijackers but their efforts are hampered by limited resources and restrictive procedures. The terrorists sitting in the Flight United 93 came to know that planes has crashed the World Trade Centre, they decided to hijack the United 93. One out of four hijackers harassed the passengers by assembling a fake bomb. The other three went into the cockpit and overpower the pilots. They put a photo of their target and by this time they came to know that Flight 77 has crushed The Pentagon. The attack on the Pentagon made the Air traffic controllers to shut down all airspace in the United States and ground every single flight because they were not enough to fight and respond to the hijackers.

The blair wirch project 2004 and Audition 1999

The Blair Witch Project and The Audition

The Blair Witch Project and The Audition are both amongst the top 25 films of the era. Shot in a blend of color and black and white, with shaky handheld camera movements and only natural lighting, The Blair Witch Project includes material that was intended to be used in the documentary, but most of the film shows the understanding of the three students as they wander through the woods. infrequently, the view switches out to a kind of "mood footage" (footage of no characters, just video of the environment) at the same time as the audio track continues.

Soon after setting out, they grow to be hopelessly lost; their state worsens when Michael, in frustration, kicks their only map of the area into the river without telling the others. Over a time of several days, a number of horrifying, mysterious, and perhaps supernatural events occur. In one scene, the crew hikes for more than half of the day only to nxrlxjmfha end up in the same spot where they had started.

Much of the plot is open to the viewer’s understanding, including the finale; few concrete indications are given as to the eventual fate of the three filmmakers.

In contrast, Audition had its share of audience walk-outs. For its unwavering graphic material, the film has been likened to the film adaptation of Stephen King’s Misery and Nagisa Oshima’s In the Realm of the Senses.  Critics have also positively compared it to Alfred Hitchcock’s Vertigo for its use of anxiety and exploration of the themes of romantic obsession and hidden personas. Among filmmakers, distinguished horror directors as well as John Landis and Rob Zombie found the film very difficult to watch, given its grisly content.

The 1999 Japanese film directed by Takashi Miike and starring Ryo Ishibashi and Eihi Shiina was based on a Ryu Murakami novel of the same title. Like the Blairwitch Project, over the years, the film has developed a cult following, particularly in the West.

Research report (part 6)

It is important to note that a significant reduction in the size of an association between two variables by taking out the influence of a third variable does not necessarily mean that that reduction indicates the degree of inaccuracy in the original relationship between the two variables. An alternative possibility that should be seriously considered is that one of the two variables is an intervening or mediating variable which is influenced by the third variable and which affects the other variable (Schore, 2000).

The absence of a significant association between two measures, on the other hand, does not necessarily signify lack of causal connection between those two variables. It is possible that the relationship is suppressed or hidden by the influence of one or more other variables.

Reflective summary

Even though Kogan and Carter (1996) conduct a very useful and interesting experiment, a problem with the still face situation, however, is that so much changes upon presentation of the still face that it is difficult to account for its effects on infant behaviour. For example, parental behaviour in a range of modalities (e.g., facial expression, looking behaviour, vocalizations, touching, head movements) decreases, the overall level of stimulation decreases, the change in parental behaviour is abrupt and unanticipated, parental behaviour is no longer responsive to that of the infant, and the parent shows a pattern of behaviour that the infant may not have seen before. Therefore, instead of supporting the arousal model, the effects of the still face could be due to expectancy violations, decreases in a single or multiple modalities, a loss of social control, the suddenness of the change, and so on. More likely, probably more than one of these processes is operating. D’Entremont and Muir, (1997) have conducted a series of studies aimed at exploring which aspects of the situation may be most influential in affecting infant behaviour. These studies provide data supporting the arousal regulation, expectancy violation, and non-contingency explanations. For example, supporting arousal regulation was the finding that if adults (mothers or experimenters) provided physical stimulation during the still face sessions (even if the adult’s hand was not visible), the infants showed more positive affect than if no physical contact was provided (D’Entremont and Muir 1997). The moderating effect of adult touch, however, was only significant for active, not passive, touch. Thus, infants who continued to receive stimulation in the form of active touch during the still face period probably experienced levels of arousal high enough that they did not become bored and distressed.

Research report (part 5)

The type of Table 2 is known as 2×3 contingency table as it consists of 2 columns and 3 rows comprising six cells. The number of actual frequencies is shown in the right column. The number of expected frequencies is illustrated in the left column. The total number of occurrences in each row, called the row totals is presented on the right-hand side of the Table 1. The total number of cases in each column, called the column totals is given in the bottom row. The column total is 40 for the United States and 20 for the United Kingdom.

Table 1: Kappa contingency matrix results

Your record codes

Mother face

Mother body


Row totals

Installed record codes

Mother face









Mother body


















Column totals









Table 2: Results of expected and actual frequencies

Expected frequencies

Actual frequencies

Cell A



Cell E



Cell I






Table 3: Kappa Calculation




Sum of Act. frequencies minus Sum of Exp. frequencies

48 – 35.9


Column totals (N) minus Sum of Exp. frequencies

60 – 35.9


Divide 1 by 2

12.1 / 24.1

0.5 – shows moderate agreement


Based on these results of moderate agreement, it is possible to note that part but not all of the association between two measures may be due to one or more other factors. For example, infants who have difficulties re-engaging with their mother after ‘still-face’ may also be introvert (that is reserved in expressing their feelings). Part of the babies’ withdrawnness may be due to mothers’ lack of sensitivity expressed during the play, another part may be due to the babies’ naturally peaceful state of mind. If we removed the influence of the infants’ psychological peculiarities on the association between the babies leaning away from the mothers and the mothers’ behaviour, then we can assume that the remaining association between these latter two variables is not the direct result of infants’ psychological type.

Research report (part 4)

A 6-point scale was employed to code the infant affect, ranging from 1 (very positive degree of engagement) to 6 (intense cry as the sign of very negative engagement). Coding categories were termed in the following way: 1. very positive; 2. positive; 3. neutral; 4. fuss negative; 5. cry; and 6. intense cry. For babies, intense cry meant that the infant reacted negatively to mother’s behaviour, looking away or withdrawing. Fuss negative meant that the baby reacted negatively to mother’s actions, but still looked toward mother. Neutral was recorded on the scale when the infant had neutral facial expressions, looking away from mother. Positive meant that the baby was smiling, yet looking away from mother; and very positive was coded when the infant was smiling and gazing towards the mother.

For mothers, very negative was coded when the participant expressed anger or annoyance and rough or invasive treatment of the baby. Negative was coded when the mother expressed emotions of sadness or when she was leaning away from the child.

The 5-minute play was ranged on a 7- or 9-point scale. The four dimensions that preceded the ‘still-face’ stage were: 1. maternal sensitivity; 2. maternal intrusiveness; 3. maternal hostility; 4. infant responsiveness.

It should be noted that we coded mothers’ looking away and degree of sensitivity towards babies in the similar manner that was used to systematize infants’ behaviour. Positive was coded when the mother showed simple smiles, looking toward or away from the child. Very positive was coded when the mother expressed very sensitive and affirmative emotions represented by the play, hugs, or rhythmic body movements.

As noted above, the limitations of our experiment included the following: lack of training in coding; inability to construct our own coding or measuring scale and the need to rely on the one employed by Kogan and Carter (1996); relying on the video piece as the primary source of information about the experiment.


  A typical contingency table consists of a number of rows and columns which show the contingency or relationship between two variables, where the variables have been classified into mutually exclusive categories and where the data consist of frequencies. A contingency table is also called a cross-tabulation table since the frequencies in the categories of one variable are tabulated across the frequencies in the categories of the other variable (Camilli and Hopkins, 1979).

Research report (part 3)

Stern (1977) developed a model showing various degrees of adult-infant contact, which has been later used by a number of scientists testing his original hypothesis of mother-child cognitive interaction. Several experimental studies have been conducted that support Stern’s (1977) model. In two separate studies, Pelaez-Nogueros and colleagues (Pelaez-Nogueros et al., 1997) had adult females interact with infants in a standardized manner, to examine the effects of different forms of contingent responsiveness on infant behaviour. In both studies, experimenters responded dissimilarly to infant looks with various forms of stimulation, and examined their effects on infant behaviour over time. In the first study (Pelaez-Nogueros et al., 1996), contingent physical stroking paired with smiling and vocalizing at the infant led to more eye contact, more positive affect, and less negative affect over time than did contingent smiling and vocalizing alone. In the second (PelaezNogueras et al., 1997), contingent stroking led to more eye contact, more positive affect, and less negative affect than did tickling and poking.

Field (1977) also provided some support for Stern’s (1977) model. In a study of full-term, preterm, and post-term infants, she noted that when mothers of full-terms were instructed to try to get their infant’s attention, the mothers increased their level of stimulation over that of free play, and the amount of time that their infants looked at them actually decreased.

The most common type of experimental study in this area involves use of Tronick and colleagues’ (Tronick, Als, Adamson, Wise, & Brazelton, 1978) ‘still-face’ procedure. In the studies conducted by Kogan and Carter (1996), parents play with their infant for a short period and then terminate normal social interaction and present a motionless ‘still-face’ (usually for about 2 minutes). Infants in these situations usually show decreases in smiling and looking at the parent, increases in motor activity, and in fussiness or crying. If this disinterest or distress is the result of boredom from insufficient stimulation, then these results support Stern’s (1977) model in that infant positive affective involvement is dependent on the presentation of interesting patterns of parental stimulation.


We used the coding approach that was initially employed by Kogan and Carter (1996) in their ‘still-face’ experiment. Unlike the original research conducted by these scholars, in which different people (specifically trained in coding) were asked to record and systemize mothers’ and infants’ behaviours, one person coded the study participants’ actions and responses to stimuli, presented on the video. Similarly to Kogan and Carter (1996), gaze and affect were coded across baseline play, still-face, and re-engagement. We systemized affect as “positive,” “neutral,” or “negative.” In turn, gaze was recorded as “leaning towards mother” or “withdrawing”.  It should be noted that if mothers or babies’ faces were not visible on the screen, we recorded the affect as missing. Three types of gazes were coded: looking at the mother’s face; looking at the toy present in the settings; and looking away or closing eyes. Relying on the experiment conducted by Kogan and Carter (1996), gaze data was coded according to one of six sorts of behaviour recorded in real time.

Research report (part 2)

Verbal report is the experiencing person’s verbal description of an internal event such as a visual image or verbal thought. Verbal report can take many forms and like descriptions of external events can be more or less precise. Because observers vary widely in their ability and motivation to observe their own internal events, verbal reports cannot be taken as definitive evidence of the occurrence of the events they represent. This is especially true with young children, who are often unable to describe even the simplest and most obvious of their own internal events. Used with caution, however, verbal report, especially with older children, can serve as a helpful index of the occurrence and sometimes even of the nature of internal events.

Deduction from observables is employed when the researcher wishes to study internal processes that are unavailable to observation by anyone, even by the experiencing person. This is often the case in the study of cognitive development, when processes of knowing constitute the subject matter for investigation. Indeed, studies of the development of what children know about objects, about other people (including other people’s thought processes), and about themselves constitute one of the most important areas of developmental research. To study such processes, researchers typically present the child with a variety of different but related tasks and observe the child’s pattern of activity (sometimes including verbal report) in response to the tasks. A set of rules that might describe the “knowledge” of someone who exhibits one rather than some other pattern of activity across the respective tasks is then constructed. The conclusion is then made that the workings of the cognitive system of the child who adopts such a response pattern conforms to these rules. Further research is then typically carried out to assess predictions, based on this inference, about the child’s activity in other, related situations (Schore, 2000).

To continue, researchers must be able to represent the occurrence of a psychological event by some means that will be relatively permanent. This record, referred to as data, may be close to the original event (such as audio or video recordings) or relatively far removed from it (such as computerized storage of numbers read from a time clock). Whatever its relationship to the actual event, however, data must at least represent the occurrence of the event; usually it will represent one or another characteristic of the event as well.

  This report describes the application of scientific observation methods to measure the reliability of coding using the method employed by Kogan and Carter (1996) in their ‘still-face’ experiment. It should be noted that these scholars were not the first ones to study the interactions between a mother and a baby.